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Archives at The Museum of Flight

Mark Winters Stereograph Collection

Identifier: 2011-04-22
The Mark Winters Stereograph Collection contains forty-eight (48) stereograph images of European World War I scenes. The stereographs are a 48-image set published by the Keystone View Company in 1921, although the photos were taken from approximately 1914-1919.

Each stereo card features a double photograph in black and white, a printed set number at the top center of the card, an image number and brief caption in the bottom right of the card, and on the left and ride sides publication information from Keystone. The reverse of each card usually features the image number, a title, and an extended historical narrative to contextualize the image. Because these sets were rereleased multiple times by Keystone, there is some variation in the style of the text on the reverse, both in terms of formatting and in the degrees of sentimentality.

Please note that a number of these stereographs contain graphic images of wartime casualties.


  • circa 1914-1921


Language of Materials

All materials are in English.

Conditions Governing Access

This collection is open for research and is accessible in the Dahlberg Research Center by appointment. For more information contact us.

Conditions Governing Use

The Museum of Flight (TMOF) Archives is the owner of the physical materials in the archives and makes available reproductions for research, publication, and other uses. Written permission must be obtained from TMOF archives before any publication use. TMOF does not necessarily hold copyright to all of the materials in the collections. In some cases, permission for use may require seeking additional authorization from copyright owners. Consult repository for more details.


0.2 Cubic Feet (1 half-width letter-size document box)


The Mark Winters Stereograph Collection contains forty-eight (48) stereograph images of World War I scenes printed by the Keystone View Company.

Historical Note: Stereographs

Stereographs are double photographs printed side by side that create a single three-dimensional image when viewed through a stereoscope. The stereoscope allows the two photos to be viewed close enough to the viewer's eyes that the images appear to overlap and create the illusion of three-dimensional depth. The curved stereograph card mount, which added to the appearance of depth, was developed in the late 1870s by early stereoview producer B. W. Kilburn and the design quickly became the standard. The format developed along with the early days of photography, with hand-held stereoscopes and stereograph collections being manufactured in the second half of the 19th century.

The Keystone View Company was started in 1892 in Pennsylvania and experienced rapid expansion. Keystone pursued the box set model popularized by rival Underwood & Underwood, but distinguished itself as a developer of educational sets. Ultimately, Keystone survived the closure of other stereograph producers, absorbing their images and rights, and becoming the only remaining major stereograph publisher in the world by 1920. One of these absorbed companies included Underwood & Underwood, which came with a significant World War I stereograph collection.

Both Keystone and Underwood were the primary producers of image sets for the Great War. Underwood photographers produced images of the first few years of the war in Europe (primarily England, Belgium, and Germany), with some pre-entry mobilization in the United States. However, by wartime Underwood & Underwood was constricting and their production became increasingly limited. Keystone's photographer was delayed by permissions until the end of the war, and was only able to produce the majority of his images in 1919. Both released sets, with Keystone re-releasing sets including both company's images after they absorbed Underwood & Underwood in 1920-1922. The numerous versions of the World War I set from Keystone were by far the most popular of any of the war stereograph sets, with production continuing all the way to 1935. A large number of the early European views acquired from Underwood were never published by Keystone, due to the fact that their market was largely American. As such their sets featured images largely taken after the U.S. entry in the war and/or of battle locations which were known to American audiences.


William C. Darrah. The World of Stereographs. William C. Darrah : Gettysburg, Penn., 1977.
Biographical Note: Mark Winters No information is known about Mark Winters.


No further accruals are expected.

Existence and Location of Copies

Materials from this collection have been digitized and are available at The Museum of Flight Digital Collections.

Related Archival Materials

The following collection at the Museum of Flight also contains stereograph images from World War I:

World War I Stereograph Collection. Seven stereoscopic photographs of World War I scenes published by Keystone View Company and Underwood & Underwood.

The Jim Bergstrom Collection of World War I Aviation Stereographs. Five (5) stereograph images of World War I scenes printed by the Keystone View Company.

Separated Materials

The following items have been separated from the archival component of this collection and are kept in Objects storage:
  • One (1) stereoscope

  • One (1) black slipcase box
Guide to the Mark Winters Stereograph Collection
Completed - Level 4
A. Demeter
Description rules
Language of description
Processing, cataloging and digitization of this collection was made possible by a Council on Libraries and Information Resources (CLIR) "Digitizing Hidden Special Collections and Archives" grant.
Edition statement
1st Edition

Revision Statements

  • November 2018: Finding aid migrated to ArchivesSpace.

Repository Details

Part of the The Museum of Flight Archives Repository

9404 East Marginal Way South
Seattle Washington 98108-4097

The Museum of Flight | 9404 E. Marginal Way South | Seattle WA 98108-4097 | 206-764-5874
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